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听写,何提高写的准确率

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(1)听写测试的形式
亚博竞彩APP 听写的测试方法有多种,较常见的有以下几种:第一种是单纯的单句、段落或短文听写(Dictation),一般播放三遍,第一遍为正常语速;第二遍稍慢(有时还在每句间留出一定时间供记录);第三遍为正常语速。此种为自考所采用。第二种是传统式听写填空(Spot Dictation)。它给出一篇100~200字短文,短文按一定规律(每隔7个单词)留出空白,要求学生根据录音填空,每空一词。此种多出现在听力教程和小型测试中。第三种和第四种为近几年四、六级统考中使用的两种新题型,即Spot Dictation和Compound Dictation。前者虽然也叫Spot Dictation,但实际的测试形式已有所变化。试题册上给出一篇不完整(约10处空)约120字的短文,要求考生根据录音在空格处填入一个句子(一般在15个词以下)或者填入句子的一个部分(几个词或一个词组),共约50个词。所填入的内容往往是关键词或与中心思想相关的内容。全文以“大纲”规定的语速朗读三遍,第一遍没有停顿,供考生听懂全文大意;第二遍在空格后有停顿(约7秒),要求考生把听到的内容填人空格;第三遍与第一遍一样,没有停顿,供考生进行核对。

与传统听写填空的不同之处在于:
①空格位置没有规律。
②填充内容由原来的一个词增加到若干个(平均每空5个词),乃至填写句子。因此,在难度上比传统式填空有所增加。下面是一篇Spot Dictation的样题。
Believe or not,43 000 000 Americans are gardening.That’Sabout one in six.Gardenem,of course,come in many varieties.Not surprisingly,most of them are people who live in the suburbs,and enojy planting flowers,or maybe a small vegetable garden.
The average age of gardeners in America is about 45 years old;they usually fall somewhere in the middle class,,But the fa,stest growing groups are city dwellers.,Urban residents are finding ways of gardening even in their crowded areas.Many go to large public gardens,as a place designed by the city for garden,and you can actually ranch your own plot.
Still other people use their balconies or roof tops,wherever they can find the space to plant small patches of green。

我们再来看Compound Dictation(复合式听写)。它包括两部分:第一部分要求考生根据录音内容准确填出空格里的词汇,一般为一个单词,全段共填8-10个单词;第二部分要求考生听完后写出该部分的文章重点(main points);
复合式听写的全文内容约250字,共朗读三遍。第一遍为全文朗读,语速正常,中间无停顿;第二遍朗读时在文章第一部分每个空格后略有停顿,供考生填写所缺单词;在文章第二部分念完后有约5分钟时间,让考生根据所听内容写出主要意思;第三遍又以正常语速朗读全文,没有停顿。此类题旨在考核学生的听、记能力和书面表达能力。有一点需要提醒大家的是,导言中特别要求考生:“After listening to the second part of the passage,you are required to write down the main points according to what you have heard'’,也就是说你不能照录音原文做记录,而应在听懂全文后进行归纳,并用自己的话简炼地将要点表达出来。

以下是一篇 Compound Dictation的第二部分,划线部分为所缺内容,要求考生根据这部分内容,归纳出要点。
In general, when moving about a city at night, it is wise to keep to the more traveled and better lighted streets. If you must travel through areas of a city that are considered dangerous or deserted, you should go by bus or taxi rather than on foot.Avoid parks after dark since they too are likely to be deserted.
亚博竞彩APP Some cities have special telephone numbers to report a fire or call the police. You will find these listed in the front of the telephone book and on public telephones. If the number is not posted, you can reach the police or fire department by calling the operator on the telephone.If you have an automobile accident, you should call the police and wait until they arrive.

应写的内容要点:
①A.You shoul go to a dangerous part of a city by bus or taxi instead of going on foot.
B.Don’t go through parks after dark.
②A.Try to have some important telephone numbers in case of danger.
B.The other way to get through to the police is to call the operator on the phone.
但也有一种复合式听写是要求考生根据录音写出7个单词和三个完整句子,由于句子不算太复杂,也允许考生根据原文听写记录。

(2)掌握听写的正确方法
我们常常看到很多同学在听写单句时这样做:录音中念第一遍时,他记下这句话的头两个词,当念第二遍时,他再添上几个听到的词,待到第三遍时,再添上几笔。结果,整个单句的听写变成了单词听写,而全然不知原试句说的是什么。自然,写出来的句子支离破碎,连他自己也看不明白。这是绝不可取的!做单句听写的正确步骤应当是:

①NIANDIYIBIANSHIJIZHONGJINGLIZIXITING,BINGLIJIFUSHU,ZAIFUSHUGUOCHENGZHONGLINGHUISHANGWEIWANQUANLIJIEDEJUZIBUFEN,TONGGUOCHUSHENGFUSHU(BUYAOGUODA,YINENGRANGZIJITINGDAOWEIYI),RANGDANAODUIJUZINEIRONGJIASHENYINXIANG。(ZHUYI:CISHIBUMANGDONGBI,ERYINGLIQIUXUNSULINGHUI。)

②NIANDIERBIANSHI,LIJIXIEXIANIYIJIBENLINGHUIDEJUZI。YOUYUZHEIYIBIANYUSUJIAOMAN,NIRENGKECAIYONGBIANTING、BIANFUSHU、BIANJILUDEFANGFA。

③读第三遍时,仔细核对,看是否有遗漏,并及时修正。
以上方法对听写段落或短文也同样适用,只是后两种在第一步时还须增加一点,就是对文中的关键点(如关键词、耐间、地点、人物、主要观点等)简单做些笔记(当然是在草纸上),这样有助于我们透过这些信息词来整理记忆,理清头绪。

XIAMIANWOMENZHEZHONGTANTANSpot?DictationHECompound DictationLIANGZHONGTIXINGDEYINGSHIFANGFA。WOMENRENWEIZUOZHEILEITINGXIEZHONGDIANYINGFANGZAIXIALIEJIGEFANGMIAN。

(1)积极预测
听写部分(除复合式听写的第二部分外)所提供的文字信息往往比所要填入的信息多得多,利用这些已知信息去预测未知信息,可以大大提高填词的针对性,减少盲目性,争取主动。具体来讲,当播放导言时,利用此间快速抢读全篇给出的现有文字,了解文章的大致内容,同时预测空格处所填文字是单词、词组还是句子,并确立其词性和基本意义。
(2) 采用“四边”处理法录音正式开始时,仔细听每个句子,并努力把握全文大意。待播放第二遍时,将注意力集中在空格部分,迅速听记(边听、边复述、边理解、边记录),遇到生词不必慌张,先记下其首写字母,以帮助稍后联想。
(3)仔细核对,以防疏漏
亚博竞彩APP 播放第三遍时,检查核对全文,注意单词拼写是否正确,是否存在语法错误。单词拼写正确与否往往暗示你是否真正听懂。在用自己的话表达句子要点时,应注意语法正确、表达切题。

下面通过实例来说明“积极预测”的好处。
On an old-time farm in America there were chickens,(1)?,cows,pigs,and other livestock,but there were very few(2)?.Most of the work was done by the(3)?.farm family with the help of a“hired hand",Some times (4)?laborers were needed in the busy?(5).Horses(6)?about 80 percent of the(7)?
used, hum an labor15 percent,and machines only 6 percent.
Today all that has changed.Just as technology changes the face of industry,farms have undergone an.“agricultu ralrevolu-tion”(8)?.Modem farmers now have machanized‘‘hired hands'’and keep horses only for pleasure.Besides developing new machinery,scientists and engineers have helped the farmers in many
ways.(9)?.This means fewer but larger farms and fewer but more prosperous farmers.However the agricultural revolution is not over.(10)?.

KAOSHENGLIYONGDAOYANZHEIDUANSHIJIAN,XUNSULIULANXIANYOUWENZICAILIAO,KEYIGUINACHUWENZHANGDEDAZHINEIRONG:ZHUTI:MEIGUONONGCHANGDEJINXI。DUAN(1):MEIGUOJIUSHINONGCHANGDEGENGZUOMOSHI——CHURENLIWAI,ZHUYAOKAOSHENGKOUZUOBANGSHOU。DUAN(2):YUDUAN(1)CHENGDUIBI,XIEJINGLINONGYEGEMINGHOUDEJINRIMEIGUONONGCHANGDEJUBIAN——JIXIEQUDAILESHENGCHU(MA),GENGJIEFANGLEREN,YIJIYOUCIDAILAIDEJIDAHAOCHU。

亚博竞彩APPCONGWENZHANGDIYIJUZHONG“…cows,pigs and other livestock”TUIZHI(1)KENDINGSHINONGJIACHUZHONGDEYILEI。JIEZHEYOU“but”DEDAOANSHI,(2)CHUSUOTIANMINGCIYIDINGYUlivestockXIANGDUI。(3)CHUCONGYUFASHANGPANDUANZHINENGSHIYIGEZUODINGYUDEXINGRONGCI。(4)YU(3)XIANGTONG,(5)CONGin the busyPANDUANZHIKENENGSHI“time”、“seasons”ZHILEI。(6)、(7)LIANGCHUYOUGAIJUNEIRONGMA、RENLIHEJIQIGEBUXIANGTONGDEBAIFENBIKEYITUIDUANSHIJIANGSANZHEZAICONGSHINONGCHANGLAODONGFANGMIANSUO“TIGONGDE”(gave,offeredHUOprovided)“LI”(power)。YOUDIERDUANQIANLIANGJU(JIANYUANWEN)KEYITUIDUANHOUYIJUBIRANSHINONGYEGEMINGYEGAIBIANLENONGCHANGDEGENBENMIANMAO——(8)On the farm of today,machines provide almost all the pow—er,(JIQIYITIDAILEMADEJIAOSE。)(9)JUYEKEYOUSHANGWENTUIZHIXIAWENSHIXIEYOUCIERYINFACHUZENYANGDEHOUGUO:(9)As a result,the farms of today are able to produce much more food with the same aumount of labor。ZAICONGHowever,the agricultu ral revolution is not over”KETUIZHIXIAJUYIDINGSHIDUIMEIGUONONGMIN(HUONONGCHANG)WEILAIDEZHANWANG:“In the future,farmers will receive even greater benefits from science and technology.”RUCICAICELIANXIANGZHIHOUZAITINGLUYIN,XIAOGUODANGRANJIUDABUXIANGTONGLE。


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